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Saturday, April 21, 2012

SYLLABUS OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES


CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test (NET) for Junior Research Fellowship and Lecturer-ship
PHYSICAL SCIENCES
PART ‘B’
I. Mathematical Methods of Physics
Dimensional analysis. Vector algebra and vector calculus. Linear algebra, matrices, Cayley-Hamilton
Theorem. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Linear ordinary differential equations of first & second order,
Special functions (Hermite, Bessel, Laguerre and Legendre functions). Fourier series, Fourier and Laplace
transforms. Elements of complex analysis, analytic functions; Taylor & Laurent series; poles, residues
and evaluation of integrals. Elementary probability theory, random variables, binomial, Poisson and
normal distributions. Central limit theorem.

II. Classical Mechanics
Newton’s laws.  Dynamical systems, Phase space dynamics, stability analysis. Central force motions.
Two body Collisions  - scattering in laboratory and Centre of mass frames.  Rigid body dynamicsmoment of inertia tensor. Non-inertial frames and pseudoforces. Variational principle. Generalized
coordinates. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism and equations of motion. Conservation laws and
cyclic coordinates. Periodic motion:  small oscillations, normal modes. Special theory of relativityLorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics and mass–energy equivalence.

III. Electromagnetic Theory  
Electrostatics: Gauss’s law and its applications,  Laplace and Poisson equations, boundary value
problems. Magnetostatics: Biot-Savart law, Ampere's theorem. Electromagnetic induction. Maxwell's
equations in free space and linear isotropic media; boundary conditions on the fields at interfaces. Scalar
and vector potentials, gauge invariance. Electromagnetic waves in free space. Dielectrics and conductors.
Reflection and refraction, polarization, Fresnel’s law, interference, coherence, and diffraction. Dynamics
of charged particles in static and uniform electromagnetic fields.

IV. Quantum Mechanics   
Wave-particle duality. Schrödinger equation (time-dependent and time-independent). Eigenvalue
problems (particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, etc.). Tunneling through a barrier. Wave-function in
coordinate and momentum representations. Commutators and Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Dirac
notation for state vectors. Motion in a central potential: orbital angular momentum, angular momentum
algebra, spin, addition of angular momenta; Hydrogen atom. Stern-Gerlach experiment. Timeindependent perturbation theory and applications. Variational method. Time dependent perturbation
theory and Fermi's golden rule, selection rules. Identical particles, Pauli exclusion principle, spin-statistics
connection.

V. Thermodynamic and Statistical Physics
Laws of thermodynamics and their consequences. Thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell relations,
chemical potential, phase equilibria. Phase space, micro- and macro-states. Micro-canonical, canonical and grand-canonical ensembles and partition functions. Free energy and its connection with
thermodynamic quantities. Classical and quantum statistics. Ideal  Bose and Fermi gases. Principle of
detailed balance. Blackbody radiation and Planck's distribution law.

VI. Electronics and Experimental Methods
Semiconductor devices (diodes, junctions, transistors, field effect devices, homo- and hetero-junction
devices), device structure, device characteristics, frequency dependence and applications. Opto-electronic
devices (solar cells, photo-detectors, LEDs).  Operational amplifiers and their applications. Digital
techniques and applications (registers, counters, comparators and similar circuits). A/D and D/A
converters. Microprocessor and microcontroller basics.
Data interpretation and analysis. Precision and accuracy. Error analysis, propagation of errors. Least
squares fitting,

PART ‘C'
I. Mathematical Methods of Physics 
Green’s function. Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three
dimensions). Elements of computational techniques: root of functions, interpolation, extrapolation,
integration by trapezoid and Simpson’s rule, Solution of first order differential equation using RungeKutta method. Finite difference methods. Tensors. Introductory group theory: SU(2), O(3).

II. Classical Mechanics
Dynamical systems, Phase space dynamics, stability analysis.    Poisson brackets and canonical
transformations. Symmetry, invariance and Noether’s theorem. Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

III. Electromagnetic Theory  
Dispersion relations in plasma. Lorentz invariance of Maxwell’s equation. Transmission lines and wave
guides. Radiation- from moving charges and dipoles and retarded potentials.

IV. Quantum Mechanics 
Spin-orbit coupling, fine structure. WKB approximation. Elementary theory of scattering: phase shifts,
partial waves, Born approximation. Relativistic quantum mechanics: Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations.
Semi-classical theory of radiation.

V. Thermodynamic and Statistical Physics
First- and second-order phase transitions. Diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and ferromagnetism. Ising
model. Bose-Einstein condensation. Diffusion equation. Random walk and Brownian motion.
Introduction to nonequilibrium processes.

VI. Electronics and Experimental Methods
Linear and nonlinear curve fitting, chi-square test. Transducers (temperature, pressure/vacuum, magnetic
fields,  vibration, optical, and particle detectors). Measurement and control. Signal conditioning and
recovery. Impedance matching, amplification (Op-amp based, instrumentation amp, feedback), filtering and noise reduction, shielding and grounding. Fourier transforms, lock-in detector, box-car integrator,
modulation techniques.
High frequency devices (including generators and detectors).

VII. Atomic & Molecular Physics
Quantum states of an electron in an atom. Electron spin. Spectrum of helium  and alkali atom. Relativistic
corrections for energy levels of hydrogen atom,  hyperfine structure and isotopic shift, width of spectrum
lines, LS & JJ couplings. Zeeman, Paschen-Bach & Stark effects. Electron spin resonance. Nuclear
magnetic resonance, chemical shift. Frank-Condon principle. Born-Oppenheimer approximation.
Electronic, rotational, vibrational and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules, selection rules.  Lasers:
spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein A & B coefficients.  Optical pumping, population
inversion, rate equation. Modes of resonators and coherence length.

VIII. Condensed Matter Physics
Bravais lattices. Reciprocal lattice. Diffraction and the structure factor. Bonding of solids. Elastic
properties, phonons, lattice specific heat.  Free electron theory and electronic specific heat.  Response and
relaxation phenomena.  Drude model of electrical and thermal conductivity. Hall effect and
thermoelectric power. Electron motion in a periodic potential, band theory of solids: metals, insulators
and semiconductors. Superconductivity: type-I and type-II superconductors. Josephson junctions.
Superfluidity. Defects and dislocations.  Ordered phases of matter: translational and orientational order,
kinds of liquid crystalline order. Quasi crystals.

IX. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Basic nuclear properties: size, shape and charge distribution, spin and parity. Binding energy, semiempirical mass formula, liquid drop model. Nature of the nuclear force, form of nucleon-nucleon
potential, charge-independence and charge-symmetry of nuclear forces. Deuteron problem. Evidence of
shell structure, single-particle shell model, its validity and limitations. Rotational spectra. Elementary
ideas of alpha, beta and gamma decays and their selection rules. Fission and fusion. Nuclear reactions,
reaction mechanism, compound nuclei and direct reactions.
Classification of fundamental forces. Elementary particles and their quantum numbers (charge, spin,
parity, isospin, strangeness, etc.). Gellmann-Nishijima formula. Quark model, baryons and mesons. C, P,
and T invariance. Application of symmetry arguments to particle reactions. Parity non-conservation in
weak interaction.  Relativistic kinematics.

EXAM SCHEME OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES


CSIR-UGC (NET) EXAM FOR AWARD OF JUNIOR RESEARCH FELLOWSHIP AND ELIGIBILITY FOR LECTURERSHIP
PHYSICAL SCIENCES
EXAM SCHEME
TIME: 3 HOURS  
MAXIMUM MARKS: 200

CSIR-UGC (NET) Exam for Award of Junior Research Fellowship and Eligibility for Lectureship shall be a Single Paper Test having Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs). The question paper shall be divided in three parts.

Part 'A' 
                This part shall carry 20 questions pertaining to General Science, Quantitative Reasoning & Analysis and Research Aptitude. The candidates shall be required to answer any 15 questions. Each question shall be of two marks. The total marks allocated to this section shall be 30 out of 200.

Part 'B'
                This part shall contain 25 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) generally covering the topics given in the Part ‘A’ (CORE) of syllabus. Each question shall be of 3.5 Marks. The total marks allocated to this section shall be 70 out of 200.Candidates are required to answer any 20 questions.

Part 'C'
                This part shall contain 30 questions from Part ‘B’ (Advanced) and Part ‘A’ that are designed to test a candidate's knowledge of scientific concepts and/or application of the scientific concepts. The questions shall be of analytical nature where a candidate is expected to apply the scientific knowledge to arrive at the solution to the given scientific problem. A candidate shall be required to answer any 20. Each question shall be of 5 Marks. The total marks allocated to this section shall be 100 out of 200.

v     There will be negative marking @25% for each wrong answer.

v     To enable the candidates to go through the questions, the question paper booklet shall be distributed 15 minutes before the scheduled time of the exam. The Answer sheet shall be distributed at the scheduled time of the exam.

v     On completion of the exam i.e. at the scheduled closing time of the exam, the candidates shall be allowed to carry the Question Paper Booklet. No candidate is allowed to carry the Question Paper Booklet in case he/she chooses to leave the test before the scheduled closing time.

v     Model Question Paper is available on HRDG website www.csirhrdg.res.in


Friday, April 20, 2012

COMPUTER DISKS


                                           
         Think of disks as cassettes. You can record information on a cassette that can be replayed indefinitely and if desired, recorded over. Floppy and Hard Disks operate in a similar fashion. We record (Save) something we have created - like a document - onto the disk. Then, hours, days, or months later we can play back (Retrieve) the document into the computer to alter or print out.
       The magnetic disk used to store information works in a manner similar to a tape recorder - magnetic impressions are placed on the tape and can be later replayed. A magnetic computer disk works in the same fashion but spins in a circle like a music record rather than moving in a straight line like recording tape.
      Magnetic computer disks are available in two basic types: floppy and hard disks. Just like cassettes, the Floppy and Hard Disks do not require electricity to retain their information. Hard Disks and Floppy Disks are similar. However, Hard Drives have a larger capacity for file storage, are faster and are less likely to fail due to the protected environment from within which they operate. Floppy and Hard Disks are nonvolatile in nature because they will retain their information without the aid of electricity.
      A hard disk can hold considerably more information than a floppy disk - frequently billions and millions of computer words (or "bytes") while a floppy disk holds less than a million in many cases. However what the floppy disk loses in capacity in gains in the advantage of portability since it can easily be removed from the PC and stored which is not true of the hard disk.
      When you format a disk you ask the computer to inspect the magnetic surface of the disk for any errors, prepare it for use by future data and create an index "file allocation table (FAT)" which is like a card index for a large library of books. Formatting a disk is a little like taking a blank piece of paper and using a pencil and ruler to turn it into graph paper with both horizontal and vertical lines. What was blank before now has little cells or file drawers which can hold information.

DISK DRIVE

The port in which a floppy disk is inserted. This device "reads data from a magnetic disk, and copies data into the computer's memory (RAM) so it can be used by the computer, and that "writes" data from the computer's memory onto a disk so it can be stored for later use. Each Disk Drive is labeled A, B, C, etc. because we often must tell the computer which drive has the disk with the information or where to send the information. A Disk Drive reads and writes on a 5. 25 inch or 3. 5 inch floppy disk.

FLOPPY DISKS

The most commonly used mass storage device. Allows entering programs to RAM and saving data from RAM. Will hold data even after the computer is turned off. Data on these disks is stored in concentric rings called tracks. The Disk surface is a thin piece of mylar and is coated with a magnetized material similar to audio or video tape.
The read/write heads can magnetize and demagnetize the coated surface repeatedly. Therefore, the Disk can be used, erased, and reused indefinitely.
Floppy disks are also available as double density and high density format. A standard floppy diskette is either 5D inches or 3A inches square. Obviously the high density of 3A" diskette contains more information than the 3A" double density diskette. A 5D" Double-sided, Double density disk holds approximately 360k worth of information (250 double spaced pages of text). The smaller 3. 5 inch Double density disks which hold at least twice as much - 720k.
Working with floppy diskettes.
To insert a floppy diskette into your computer drive, first remove it from the paper or plastic slipcover if one protects it. The proper way to insert a floppy diskette in most drives is as follows.
For larger 5 - 1/4 inch floppies, turn the printed label side up and locate the TWO VERY TINY notches along one edge. Near the notches will be a jelly bean shaped hole about one inch long cut into the plastic surface of the diskette. This oblong hole is the read/write opening. Insert the diskette into the drive with the label side up and the two tiny notches FIRST into the drive opening then close the drive locking handle. Along one edge of the diskette you will also see a SINGLE square shaped hole which is the write protect notch.
If this write protect notch is UNCOVERED you can BOTH read and write data to the diskette. If the write protect notch is covered with a piece of tape, then you can READ information from the diskette but you CANNOT write information to the diskette. This is a safeguard feature you may wish to use from time to time.
For smaller 3 - 1/2 inch size diskettes, turn the label side up and locate the metal "shutter". Insert the diskette into the drive with the label up and the shutter FIRST into the drive. The write protect notch or opening is a small square hole with a SLIDING PLASTIC TAB which is slid CLOSED (cannot see an open hole) to enable BOTH reading and writing to the diskette. The sliding tab is placed OPEN (visible open hole) to enable reading but NOT writing.

FIXED DISK DRIVE

Usually named disk drive C. It is essentially a very large floppy disk. This Fixed Disk (commonly called a Hard Drive) is secured within the machine and cannot be seen or transported. The storage capacity is so large it is measured in megabytes (1M = 1K squared = 1, 048, 576 bytes). Fixed Disks are available from 5M on up. The main advantages are that it has enough space to meet most users' total storage needs, operates much faster than a floppy (5-10 times faster), and is less likely to fail since it "lives" within the protected computer.
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